Some medieval German sausage recipes.

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Some medieval German sausage recipes.

Postby vagreys » Wed May 25, 2011 9:04 am

This is late, I know, but some of these recipes are much older than the book.

German (c. 1553) – Recipes from Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin

23. Welt jr gút wirst zúm sallat machen
So nempt 10 pfúnd schweinin fleisch, 5 pfúnd oxenfleisch allweg zwen tritail schweinin, ain tail oxenfleisch/ das wer 15 pfúnd, soll man 16 lott saltz/ vnnd 5 lott pfeffer, soll ain wenig erstossen sein, nit gantz, vnnd so das flesch gehacht jst/ thut man erst 2 pfúnd speck darein , klain gewirfflet geschniten, darnach das schweinin flesch faist jst, mag man minder oder mer nemen, man soll den speck vom rúggen nemen vnnd nit vom wamen, vnnd das sý woll jberainandergetrúckt werden , ýe er man sý tricknet, ye pesser/ hencken sý jn stúben oder jn kúchin, doch nit jn raúch/ vnnd nit zú nach zúm offen, das der speck nit ergang, sochs soll jm zúnementen mon geschechen, vnnd soll man das geheck woll vnnd hert aintrúcken, so belciben die wirst lang gút/ vnnd soll ain yedliche wúrst oben vnnd vnndten zúbinden, aúch bendel lassen an beden ordten, damit man die auffhencken soll, vnnd soll man die all 2 tag vmbkerenn, das vnndertail jber, vnnd wan sý gar aústricknet seind, schlagst jn ain túch vnnd legts jn kasten.

23. If you would make a good sausage for a salad
Then take ten pounds of pork and five pounds of beef, always two parts pork to one part of beef. That would be fifteen pounds. To that one should take eight ounces of salt and two and one half ounces of pepper, which should be coursely ground, and when the meat is chopped, put into it at first two pounds of bacon, diced. According to how fat the pork is, one can use less or more, take the bacon from the back and not from the belly. And the sausages should be firmly stuffed. The sooner they are dried the better. Hang them in the parlor or in the kitchen, but not in the smoke and not near the oven, so that the bacon does not melt. This should be done during the crescent moon, and fill with the minced meat well and firmly, then the sausages will remain good for a long while. Each sausage should be tied above and below and fasten a ribbon on both ends with which they should be hung up, and every two days they should be turned, upside down, and when they are fully dried out, wrap them in a cloth and lay them in a box.

24. Wie man zerwúlawirstlach machen soll
Erstlich nempt 4 pfúnd schweinflesch vom zepfflin/ vnnd 2 pfúnd speck, das last klainhacken vnnd thiet 6 lott saltz darain/ ain pfúnd geriben kesß, .iii. lott pffeffer, 3 lott jmber, wen es gehackt jst, so knetten das als darein, rerlach 3 lott, ain ½ lott negellach, ain halb lott múscatnúsß, zwaý lott zúcker, die derm músß man saúbermachen vnd nachmals gilben, darf man nit gar ain ½ lott saffera, man músß sý binden aúff baiden seitten, aúch vnngeferlich ain qúertlin frisch wasser darangiessen, man músß aúch das saltz, jmber, pfeffer nit gar darainthon, soll es vor versúchen vnnd darnach machen, man soll sý sieden vnngefarlich als 2 air, das gewirtz vnnd saltz músß man dareinton nach aines gúten gedoncken, man músß zuúor versúchen.

24. How one should make Zervelat
First take four pounds of pork from the tender area of the leg and two pounds of bacon. Let this be finely chopped and add to it three ounces of salt, one pound of grated cheese, one and one half ounces of pepper and one and one half ounces of ginger. When it is chopped then knead the following into it, one and one half ounces of cinnamon, one fourth ounce of cloves, one fourth ounce of nutmeg and one ounce of sugar. The sausage skins must be cleaned and subsequently colored yellow, for which one needs not quite one fourth ounce of saffron. Tie it up on both ends and pour in approximately one quart of fresh water. The entire amount of salt, ginger and pepper should not be added, taste it first and season it accordingly. It should be cooked about as long as to cook eggs. The seasoning and the salt must be put into it according to one’s own discretion, it must be tried first.

25. Weltt jr gútt prattwirst machen
So nempt 4 pfúnd schweinis vnnd 4 pfúnd rinderis, das last klainhacken, nempt darnach 2 pfúnd speck darúnder vnnd hackts anainander vnnd vngeferlich 3 seidlen wasser giest daran, thiet aúch saltz, pfeffer daran, wie jrs geren est, oder wan jr geren kreúter darin megt haben/ múgt jr nemen ain wenig ain salua vnnd ain wenig maseron, so habt jr gút brattwirst/.

25. If you would make good bratwurst
Take four pounds of pork and four pounds of beef and chop it finely. After that mix with it two pounds of bacon and chop it together and pour approximately one quart of water on it. Also add salt and pepper thereto, however you like to eat it, or if you would like to have some good herbs, you could take some sage and some marjoram, then you have good bratwurst.

26. Welt jr gút leberwirst machen
Erstlich nempt ain viertail von ainer saúleber, aúch ain viertel von ainer lúngen von ainer saú, hacken sý klain, schneiden darnach ain speck gewirfflet klain vnnd thiet saltz vnnd kimech daran, die leber vnnd die lúngen músß man zúúor erwellen, ee mans hackt/ vnnd darnach von derselbigen brie an das geheck giessen, soúil dich gút dúnckt, darnach mústú den affterdarm aus der metzg nemen vnnd ainstossen, so hast gúte wúrst.

26. If you would make good liverwurst
First take a quarter of a pig’s liver, also a quarter of a pig’s lungs, chop them small, after that chop bacon into small cubes and put salt and caraway seeds into it. The liver and lungs must first be cooked, before they are chopped, and afterwards pour as much of this broth on the chopped meat as you feel is enough. Then take the intestines from the slaughterhouse and fill them full, then you have good sausage.

Sources:
Armstrong, Valoise. Translation of Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin. Online at http://www.daviddfriedman.com/Medieval/Cookbooks/Sabrina_Welserin.html.

Gloning, Thomas. Transcription of Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin based on a current edition of the same name by Hugo Stopp, Heidelberg: University Press C. Winter Heidelberg, 1980. Online at http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/sawe.htm.
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Postby big_onion » Wed May 25, 2011 2:10 pm

When these recipes call for bacon, what are they referring to exactly? What we call bacon in the US is, as I understand it, different from bacon in the UK or even Canada. And should the bacon added to these recipes be cured already? Or are they referring to uncured meat?

Thanks for posting these. Very awesome to see some old recipes.
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Postby vagreys » Wed May 25, 2011 6:53 pm

big_onion wrote:When these recipes call for bacon, what are they referring to exactly? What we call bacon in the US is, as I understand it, different from bacon in the UK or even Canada. And should the bacon added to these recipes be cured already? Or are they referring to uncured meat?

Thanks for posting these. Very awesome to see some old recipes.

By the time of Welserin, the definition of "speck" was narrowing, some, but it was still a much broader term than what we think of as 'bacon' in modern America. Even today, the concept of 'bacon' is broader in Europe, than in the US. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, "speck" was a broader term for (early on) any salt meat and (later) more often a reference to salt pork, but not exclusively to cured side meat. It was usually a reference to salt-cured meat, but sometimes was a reference to the fresh cuts of fatty meat used to make 'speck'. As a general rule, I interpret words that, today, translate to 'bacon' as salted meat. The bottom line is that we can't be certain, in some cases, what they were referring to. All we can do is make our best guess. Do keep in mind that the definition of some weights and measures have changed over time, too, and that can affect the apparent seasoning of a recipe.
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Postby scotman » Thu May 26, 2011 2:52 pm

Hi. Speck is the German butchers term for Back fat. It is also the houseold term for bacon and for salted(cured fat) I know lots of bratwurst variations and none of them have bacon-speck in them. No a lie, Gourmet bratwurst:- From Fleischerei Schmidt. A normal bratwurst with cooked ham, bacon, cheese and dried onions (as course ground ingredients).
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Postby crustyo44 » Thu May 26, 2011 10:22 pm

Hi,
I remember Speck as cured and lightly smoked backfat and used finely/coursely chopped in all sorts of wonderful sausages. So
Some speck was up to 3" thick and in big demand.
Some speck with lots of meat was called "ontbijt spek", "breakfast speck" same as in Germany I presume.
Best Regards,
Jan. Brisbane.
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Postby vagreys » Thu May 26, 2011 10:29 pm

scotman wrote:Hi. Speck is the German butchers term for Back fat. It is also the houseold term for bacon and for salted(cured fat) I know lots of bratwurst variations and none of them have bacon-speck in them. No a lie, Gourmet bratwurst:- From Fleischerei Schmidt. A normal bratwurst with cooked ham, bacon, cheese and dried onions (as course ground ingredients).

I agree that the modern definition has come to refer to backfat and the equivalent of Italian lardo, but the meaning of the word has shifted over centuries, as reflected throughout German charcuterie. Hams have been referred to as 'speck' as have other cured meats, since the early 14th century. I'm now curious what the actual root of the word is, and its many uses over time. I wonder if there is an equivalent to an OED entry in the German language for the word 'speck'?
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Postby scotman » Sat May 28, 2011 8:07 am

me again. If OED means Oxford English dictionary then the equiv here is Die Grosse Bertelamanns Lexikothek, and Ive got a copy here on the desk (still from the times when the things we read where made of paper) the translation for speck is
"Speck, das Fettwegwbe unter der Haut des Schweins, bes. ouf dem Rücken, dem Bauch u. den Schinkenpartien.
Translated means Speck is the fat found under the skin of pigs especially the fat on the back, the belly and the hind quarters.
Although if anyone knows better Ill be glad to hear. Unfortunately I'm no expert on old German or so I've only been here 15 and like we all know "you live and learn" :)
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Postby grisell » Sat May 28, 2011 9:11 am

It's the same word in Swedish (although spelt späck). According to my etymological dictionary, it's an ancient Germanic word meaning exactly what scotman says.

There is also the verb späcka/spicken which means to stuff pieces of meat with shreds of fat (to make it tender). That verb has come to have an extended meaning and nowadays means to stuff just about anything.
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Postby vagreys » Tue May 31, 2011 4:57 am

scotman wrote:me again. If OED means Oxford English dictionary then the equiv here is Die Grosse Bertelamanns Lexikothek, and Ive got a copy here on the desk (still from the times when the things we read where made of paper) the translation for speck is
"Speck, das Fettwegwbe unter der Haut des Schweins, bes. ouf dem Rücken, dem Bauch u. den Schinkenpartien.
Translated means Speck is the fat found under the skin of pigs especially the fat on the back, the belly and the hind quarters.
Although if anyone knows better Ill be glad to hear. Unfortunately I'm no expert on old German or so I've only been here 15 and like we all know "you live and learn" :)

Thanks so much! I've learned something new to me.
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Postby vagreys » Tue May 31, 2011 4:59 am

grisell wrote:It's the same word in Swedish (although spelt späck). According to my etymological dictionary, it's an ancient Germanic word meaning exactly what scotman says.

There is also the verb späcka/spicken which means to stuff pieces of meat with shreds of fat (to make it tender). That verb has come to have an extended meaning and nowadays means to stuff just about anything.

Are we talking about barding, here? That's very interesting.
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Postby grisell » Tue May 31, 2011 9:47 am

vagreys wrote:
grisell wrote:It's the same word in Swedish (although spelt späck). According to my etymological dictionary, it's an ancient Germanic word meaning exactly what scotman says.

There is also the verb späcka/spicken which means to stuff pieces of meat with shreds of fat (to make it tender). That verb has come to have an extended meaning and nowadays means to stuff just about anything.

Are we talking about barding, here? That's very interesting.


:? As I recall it, barding means to cover a piece of meat with sliced back fat, but I may be wrong. What the verb spicken/späcka refers to is to insert slivers of fat into the meat, e.g. with a tool like this one:

Image
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Postby wheels » Tue May 31, 2011 2:33 pm

Barding also refers to inserting fat into the meat with a needle like the one you show - it's called a barding needle in the UK.

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Postby grisell » Tue May 31, 2011 7:21 pm

Ok. I didn't know that. In Swedish (and probably in German), the verb späcka only means the insertion of fat into the muscle. For the external part, the French stem is used and so bardera means to cover something wih slices of fat.
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Postby federico » Thu Jun 02, 2011 8:50 pm

My German grandfather Friederich Weiss, from lower saxony always referred to backfat as Speck. Specking for him meant to stuff lean meat with pork backfat, so that's most likely what these wonderfull ancient recipes call for. Here we call " mechar" the action of stuffing any sort of meat with backfat, streaky bacon, lardo, spices or condiments of any sort, like green onions or leeks :D
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